Design Codes

Design codes compare control to experimental data.

Design codes also start with a simple database table. In this case, experimental data are plotted against control data.

Simple design codes include data taken from a single paper. The equations in the figure show that growth in the liver - from 1 month to a year - involves a uniform change in the structures plotted. Check the Excel worksheet for details.

Some structures change uniformly, whereas...

...others do not.

When data are combined from several papers, equations can identify distinct structural patterns for diseases such as schizophrenia. Structures may decrease...

... or increase.

Notice that changes in the hippocampus - taken from several papers - can fit on just two power curves.

Aging means more, less, or the same - across all structures from all animals.

Design codes can also be used to generate ladder equations. The unexpected result was that control and experimental data give equations with different slopes.

Here is a collection of neurons - from different parts of the brain - that seem to change according to the same rule.

Of course, other neurons can change according to a different rule.

Notice how easy it is to simplify the complex effects of alcohol on structures (before) by expressing the results as three power equations with r^2 => 0.999 (after).